The Consumer Motivation Process

The Consumer Motivation Process

Motivation refers to the underlying forces (or motives) that contribute to our purchasing actions. These motives stem from the conscious or unconscious goal of satisfying our needs and wants. [Read more…]

Advertising Likelihood Model

The Elaboration Likelihood Model

Researchers have identified two ways promotion communication can persuade consumers: the central and peripheral routes to persuasion. Like learning theory, each depends on the consumer’s level of involvement with the product and the message. [Read more…]

How Consumers Process Information

How Consumers Process Information

Learning is a relatively permanent change in thought process or behavior that occurs as a result of reinforced experience. Like perception, learning works off the mental files and at the same time contributes to them. [Read more…]

Kinds of Perception


A stimulus is physical information we receive through our senses. Advertising stimuli can appear in a variety of forms: a window display at a local department store, the brightly colored labels on cans of Campbell’s tomato soup, or even the red price tag on a pair of skis at the Sport Chalet. These objects are all physical in nature; they stimulate our senses (with varying degrees of intensity) in ways that can be measured. [Read more…]

The Consumer Perception Process

The Consumer Perception Process

Perception is everything. It guides all our activities from the people we associate with to the products we buy. How a consumer perceives each of the different brands in a category determines which ones he or she uses. [Read more…]

The Relationship between Marketing & Advertising

The Relationship between Marketing & Advertising

Marketing is the business process management uses to plan and execute the conception, pricing, promotion, and distribution of its products, whether they are goods, services, brands, or even ideas. The ultimate purpose of marketing is to create exchanges that satisfy the perceived needs, wants, and objectives of individuals and organizations. [Read more…]

How to invest & dis-invest in advertising

Investing in Advertising

In terms of profitability, investing in advertising is justified only if the incremental revenue generated from the advertising exceeds the advertising expense. In other words, if the advertising expense is $X, then over the long term (i.e., not necessarily immediately) revenue attributable to the advertising must be more than $X to justify the investment. [Read more…]

How to Compensate Adv Agency


There are three basic methods by which clients compensate agencies for services rendered: (1) receiving commissions from media, (2) being compensated based on a fee system, and (3) earning compensation based on outcomes. [Read more…]

How to manage advertising process

Formulating and Implementing Advertising Strategy

Advertising strategy formulation involves four major activities: Setting Objectives, Formulating Budgets, Creating Ad Messages and Selecting Ad Media and Vehicles. Objectives are goals that the various elements aspire to achieve individually or collectively during a scope of time such as a business quarter or fiscal year. [Read more…]

Advertising Process

Advertising Process

The challenge of advertising goes beyond the act of creating messages and involves also the task of placing ads in the right advertising media and selecting appropriate measures to assess whether an advertising campaign has achieved its goals. [Read more…]